ecca group south africa coal

ecca group south africa coal

Ecca group - [email protected]

2021-9-23 · Coal is economically important , as it is South Africa’s most abundant fossil fuel and source of energy. Coal is black to brown and a soft and light rock composed of the carbon remains of plants. It is found as seams, or layers within shales and sandstones of the Ecca group.

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Petrographical and geophysical investigation of the Ecca ...

2019-1-1 · The Ecca Group is a sedimentary geological unit that comprises mostly of shales and sandstones. Almost all of South Africa’s coal resources and one-third of the coal resources in the southern hemisphere are in the rocks of the Ecca Group [].The coal seams is described to be horizontal throughout in the Main Karoo Basin except where the seams are associated with dolerite intrusions [].

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Coal - Minerals Council South Africa

2021-11-5 · South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, and date from the Permian period between 280 and 250 Ma. In general terms, they are largely located in the north-eastern quarter of the country.

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ecca group south africa coal - biofarmapodhajkem.cz

ecca group south africa coal iccastelgoffredo.it. ecca group south africa coal onsvertier Coal in South AfricaWikipedia. The largest coal deposits in South Africa are to be found in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, dating from the Permian period, between 280 and 250 Ma.The Ecca Group is extensive, covering around two thirds of South Africa (much of it covered by slightly ...

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Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South ...

2014-11-1 · 1. Introduction. Our knowledge of the Permian palynology of the South African Karoo Basin is based on a fundamental research carried out in the 1970s and 1980s by Anderson (1977) and Falcon (see 1989 and references therein).No recent works address high-resolution palynostratigraphy of the Permian–Triassic coal-bearing formations in the South African Karoo, whereas new

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Ecca Group - Description | Technology Trends

Ecca Group - Description. The type area for the Ecca Group is in the Karoo Basin of South Africa and Lesotho. In the southwestern Karoo Basin, the Ecca Group has a total thickness of approximately 1300 m. There is no single location where the entire vertical section of the Ecca Group is exposed. At Skoorsteenberg in the southwestern basin there ...

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Deltaic and fluvial deposits of the Ecca group, Nongoma ...

2021-1-31 · The Ecca Group sediments of the north-eastern Karoo Basin have attracted attention in the past because of economic deposits of coal found in the coalfields centred on Vryheid (Blignaut and Furter, 1940) and Witbank. The present study is concerned with the eastern side of the main Karoo Basin between the northern Natal Coal­

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Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

2014-10-21 · Coal Seam, represents postglacial fluvio-deltaic deposits of the Lower Ecca Group, pointing to a highly proximal setting of the northern basin margin (Falcon, 1989). Further south in the Main Karoo Basin organic-rich shales of the Whitehill Formation have been regarded as time-equivalent to the coal-bearing Vryheid Formation (Viljoen, 1994;

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Ecca - definition of Ecca in A Dictionary of South African ...

Usually attributive, especially in the phrases Ecca beds, Ecca flora, Ecca series, etc., designating a geological group made up of shales and sandstones, and the plant fossils found therein. Note: The Ecca group is one of several groups which form the lower beds of the Karoo System. See also Dwyka, Karoo System (Karoo sense 3).

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SOUTH AFRICAN COAL SECTOR REPORT - Energy

2018-5-25 · South Africa contributes about 3.5% of the world’s coal resources. The country’s production is around 3.3% of the world’s annual total and exports approximately 6% of global exports. Coal is the major primary energy source for South Africa. More than 90% of the country’s electricity

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Coal - Minerals Council South Africa

2021-11-5 · South Africa’s coal resources are contained in the Ecca deposits, a stratum of the Karoo Supergroup, and date from the Permian period between 280 and 250 Ma. In general terms, they are largely located in the north-eastern quarter of the country.

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Dark new world of South African coal – M i N M E T

2021-4-14 · The biggest coal deposits can be found in the Ecca deposits, a vein of the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. The Ecca group covers approximately two thirds of the country and contains over a third of the coal reserves in the entire Southern Hemisphere. The most important coal fields in South Africa are: Highveld coal field; Waterberg coal field

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Coal Mining in Africa - Mining Africa

2021-1-4 · The biggest coal deposits can be found in the Ecca deposits, a vein of the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. The Ecca group covers approximately two thirds of the country and contains over a third of the coal reserves in the entire Southern

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Ecca group - isiZulu - [email protected]

2021-9-23 · Ecca group ukusondela kuma-latitudes afudumele Cenozoic Zululand Group Lebombo Group Drakensberg Group Stormberg Group Beaufort Group Ecca Group Dwyka Group Natal Group Natal Metamorphic Pongola Supergroup Kaapvaal Ngenkathi i-Gondwana inyakaza ibheke ngasenyakatho isondelela eduze nenkabazwe, imibhede yebumba nodaka yandlaleka phansi

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Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology

2014-10-21 · Coal Seam, represents postglacial fluvio-deltaic deposits of the Lower Ecca Group, pointing to a highly proximal setting of the northern basin margin (Falcon, 1989). Further south in the Main Karoo Basin organic-rich shales of the Whitehill Formation have been regarded as time-equivalent to the coal-bearing Vryheid Formation (Viljoen, 1994;

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Ecca - definition of Ecca in A Dictionary of South African ...

Usually attributive, especially in the phrases Ecca beds, Ecca flora, Ecca series, etc., designating a geological group made up of shales and sandstones, and the plant fossils found therein. Note: The Ecca group is one of several groups which form the lower beds of the Karoo System. See also Dwyka, Karoo System (Karoo sense 3).

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Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South ...

Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South Africa): Utilizing climatic icehouse-greenhouse signals for cross basin correlations ... changes during this period of global warming and test if the climatic signals could be used to correlate the basinal Ecca group facies with the fluvio-deltaic coal-bearing strata of the Witbank Basin ...

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Resolving cryptic stratigraphy in the Ecca Group, Karoo ...

2020-12-1 · The southern Ecca Group presents a unique Permian regressive succession from basin floor to shelf sedimentation. The Ecca Group represents the under-filled phase from a deep marine to deltaic environment and most of the Lower Ecca formations (Prince Albert, Whitehill and Collingham) extend across the entire southwestern Karoo Basin.

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SOUTH AFRICAN COAL SECTOR REPORT - Energy

2018-5-25 · South Africa contributes about 3.5% of the world’s coal resources. The country’s production is around 3.3% of the world’s annual total and exports approximately 6% of global exports. Coal is the major primary energy source for South Africa. More than 90% of the country’s electricity

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Depositional environments of the lower Permian Dwyka ...

2021-10-6 · Dwyka to lower Ecca Groups in the Karoo Basin of southern Africa (Catuneanu et al., 1998). Depositional environments varied geographically in the Karoo Basin and ranged from marine to lacustrine for the Dwyka to lower Ecca Groups of southern Africa. Fossils from the Dwyka Group in the Warmbad Basin in southernNamibia(Fig.1 ...

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Dark new world of South African coal – M i N M E T

2021-4-14 · The biggest coal deposits can be found in the Ecca deposits, a vein of the Karoo Supergroup in South Africa. The Ecca group covers approximately two thirds of the country and contains over a third of the coal reserves in the entire Southern Hemisphere. The most important coal fields in South Africa are: Highveld coal field; Waterberg coal field

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Palynological records ofthe Permian Ecca Group (South ...

2021-8-2 · Coal Seam of the northern Witbank coal eld and a core (DP 1/78) drilled in the northeastern part of the Main Karoo Basin with the aim of using climatic signals for basin-wide correlation. 2. Geological setting The Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic Karoo Basin covers approximately one third (i.e. 700 000 km 2) of South Africa ( Johnson

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Ecca group - isiZulu - [email protected]

2021-9-23 · Ecca group ukusondela kuma-latitudes afudumele Cenozoic Zululand Group Lebombo Group Drakensberg Group Stormberg Group Beaufort Group Ecca Group Dwyka Group Natal Group Natal Metamorphic Pongola Supergroup Kaapvaal Ngenkathi i-Gondwana inyakaza ibheke ngasenyakatho isondelela eduze nenkabazwe, imibhede yebumba nodaka yandlaleka phansi

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Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South ...

Palynological records of the Permian Ecca Group (South Africa): Utilizing climatic icehouse-greenhouse signals for cross basin correlations ... changes during this period of global warming and test if the climatic signals could be used to correlate the basinal Ecca group facies with the fluvio-deltaic coal-bearing strata of the Witbank Basin ...

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The Lower Karoo Supergroup geology of the

2021-2-20 · two formations in the Ecca Group due to the absence of per­ sistent, thick coals (see below). However, to the south of the Zoetfontein Fault, the eastern margin of the Gemsbok Sub­ basin is defined by the outcrop of pre-Karoo rocks. There does not appear to be any significant coal within the Ecca Group in this area (Smith, 1984a).

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Major Mines & Projects | Impunzi Mine

The Ecca Group consists predominantly of sandstone, siltstone, shale and coal. The Vryheid Formation in the Ecca Group contains five bituminous coal seams, numbered as No. 1 to No. 5 from bottom to top. The No. 2, No. 4 and No. 5 seams are the most economical coal seams to

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Ecca Mining - Johannesburg

Yasinda Mining Supplies - Randburg. 21 Harley Street randburg ferndale kent and Harley street . Randburg . Gauteng . 2160. we supply mining equipment of all aspects from powertools, earthmoving equipment&parts.and safety equipment, tool kit and sets, constration

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Marine flooding surfaces recorded in Permian black

(Dwyka Group) to marine -deltaic (Ecca Group), to fluvial (Beaufort Group) and aeolian (Stormberg Group). The lower Ecca Group hosts thick coal-bearing successions in the north-eastern part of the basin and black shales (Ecca shales: Prince Albert, Whitehill, Collingham formations; Johnson, 2009) occur in the central and southern basin.

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Dale Packham - CEO - Ecca Mining Group | LinkedIn

View Dale Packham’s profile on LinkedIn, the world’s largest professional community. Dale has 2 jobs listed on their profile. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Dale’s connections and jobs at similar companies.

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Publications - Keele University

Götz, A.E. & Ruckwied, K. (2013): Palynological records of the Early Permian icehouse-greenhouse transition (Ecca Group, South Africa). - Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 15: EGU2013-1262, Abstracts of the Contributions of the EGU General Assembly; Vienna.

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